John Pilger argues that the referendum result represents a deeper, more dynamic anger than the reasons rehearsed by politicians and the media and offers a glimpse of hope. May Silencing America as it prepares for war 27 May Show intro Writing from the United States, John Pilger joins a momentous election campaign - his fourth as a reporter - and suggests that the sound and fury may not be as it appears.
A mixture, consisting mainly of pentanes and heavier hydrocarbons that exists in the liquid phase in reservoirs and remains liquid at atmospheric pressure and temperature. Crude oil may contain sulphur and other nonhydrocarbon compounds, but does not include liquids obtained from the processing of natural gas.
Classes of crude oil are often reported on the basis of density, sometimes with different meanings. Acceptable ranges are as follows: A mixture of lighter hydrocarbons that exist either in the gaseous phase or in solution in crude oil in reservoirs but are gaseous at atmospheric conditions.
Natural gas may contain sulphur or other non-hydrocarbon compounds. Those hydrocarbon components that can be recovered from natural gas as liquids including but not limited to, ethane, propane, butanes, pentanes plus, condensate and small quantities of nonhydrocarbons. Undiscovered Resources Undiscovered resources are defined as those quantities of oil and gas estimated on a given date to be contained in accumulations yet to be discovered.
The estimated potentially recoverable portion of undiscovered resources is classified as prospective resources.
Prospective resources are defined as those quantities of oil and gas estimated on a given date to be potentially recoverable from undiscovered accumulations.
They are technically and economic to recover. Resources Categories Due to the high uncertainty in estimating resources, evaluations of these assets require some type of probabilistic method. Expected value concepts and decision tree analyses are routine; however, in high risk, high-reward projects, Monte Carlo simulation can be used.
In any event, three success cases plus a failure case should be included in the evaluation of the resources. When evaluating resources, in particular contingent and prospective resources, the following mutually Crude the documentary categories are recommended: This is considered to be a conservative estimate of the quantity that will actually be recovered from the accumulation.
If probabilistic methods are used, this term reflects a P90 confidence level.
This is considered to be the best estimate of the quantity that will actually be recovered from the accumulation. This is considered to be an optimistic estimate of the quantity that will actually be recovered from the accumulation. If probabilistic methods are used, this term reflects a P10 confidence level.
Reserves Categories Reserves are estimated remaining quantities of oil and natural gas and related substances anticipated to be recoverable from know accumulations, from a given date forward, based on Analysis of drilling, geological, geophysical and engineering data; The use of established technology; Specified economic conditions, which are generally accepted as being reasonable, and shall be disclosed.
Reserves are classified according to the degree of certainty associated with the estimates.
Proved Reserves are those reserves that can be estimated with high degree of certainty to be recoverable. It is likely that the actual remaining quantities recovered will exceed the estimated proved reserves. Probable Reserves are those additional reserves that are less certain to be recovered than proved reserves.
Possible Reserves are those additional reserves that are less certain to be recovered than probable reserves. Development and Production Status Each of the reserves categories proved, additional, and possible may be divided into developed and undeveloped categories.
Developed reserves are those reserves that are expected to be recovered from existing wells and installed facilities or, if facilities have not been installed, that would involve a low expenditure e.
The developed category may be subdivided into producing and non-producing. Developed producing reserves are those reserves that are expected to be recovered from completed intervals open at the time of the estimate. These reserves may be currently producing or shut in, they must have previously been on production, and the date of resumption of production must be known with reasonably certainty.
Developed non-producing reserves are those reserves that either have not been on production, or have previously been on production, but are shut in, and the date of resumption of production is unknown. Undeveloped Reserves are those reserves expected to be recovered from known accumulations where a significant expenditure e.
They must fully meet the requirements of the reserves classification proved, probable, possible to which they are assigned. In multi-well pools, it may be appropriate to allocate total pool reserves between the developed and undeveloped categories or to subdivide the developed reserves for the pool between developed producing and developed non-producing.
This allocation should be based on the estimator's assessment as to the reserves that will be recovered from specific wells, facilities, and completion intervals in the pool and their respective development and production status.
Levels of Certainty for Reported Reserves The qualitative certainty levels contained in these definitions are applicable to individual Reserves Entities, which refers to the lowest level at which reserves calculations are performed, and to Reported Reserves, which refers to the highest level sum of individual entity estimates for which reserves estimates are presented.
Reported Reserves should target the following levels of certainty under a specific set of economic conditions: A quantitative measure of the certainty levels pertaining to estimates prepared for the various reserves categories is desirable to provide a clearer understanding of the associated risks and uncertainties.
However, the majority of reserves estimates will be prepared using deterministic methods that do not provide a mathematically derived quantitative measure of probability.Britain: the depth of corruption John Pilger describes how the current scandal of MPs' tax evasion and phantom mortgages conceals a deeper corruption that is traced back to .
On the clear, cloudless morning of August 26th, , in the city of Denver, Colorado, twelve American motorists set out on a 5, mile, day pilgrimage to all twelve National Parks.
Petroleum (/ p ə ˈ t r oʊ l i ə m /) is a naturally occurring, yellowish-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface. It is commonly refined into various types of feelthefish.coments of petroleum are separated using a technique called fractional distillation, i.e.
separation of a liquid mixture into fractions differing in boiling point by means of distillation. Crude is a American documentary film directed and produced by Joe Berlinger.
It follows a two-year portion of an ongoing class action lawsuit against the Chevron Corporation in Ecuador. In a local industry where it is widely perceived that multi-million dollar deals are closed every day, the opposite is quite the reality. More people around the world want to purchase Bonny Light Crude Oil (BLCO) on OFF-OPEC terms since it is currently the most demanded crude oil in the world because of its low sulphur content, but settling with a crude oil seller causes most negotiations and.
This post was originally published in March, It is with sadness that I write this blog entry. I just finished watching a documentary called Earthlings that contains the most abominable acts of cruelty towards animals that I have ever seen..
It's hard to believe that this important documentary has been available for more than a year on DVD.