Students will write approximately once a week in a variety of different styles, with particular attention to artistic description as well as the expository paragraph and then keyhole essay. Students will be introduced to the writing process. Students will speak informally and formally, at times from memory, at times with interpretive emotion. Grade 9 teachers give particular emphasis to the foundations of grammar, the gods and goddesses of Greek myth, poetry, and short fiction.
Ionic bonding In order for atoms to gain a full shell of electrons, chemical bonding needs to occur by either gaining or losing electrons.
Ionic, Covalent and Intermolecular bonds are the different types of atomic bonding Hunt, A. The process of ionic bonding occurs with both metals and non-metals Ritchie,pp. The metal atoms consist of the first few columns of the periodic table, and these have spare electrons in their outer shell, meaning that they need to bond with a non-metal atom in order to gain electrons to have a full shell.
The way in which this works is when electrons are transferred from the metal atom to the non-metal atom to form ions, and when this ionic bond happens, attractions are created between the positive and negative charge ions Khan, As the electrons are traded and are accompanied ions of the opposite charge, and these opposite charges will attract each other, this forms the chemical bond Khan, Dot-and-cross diagrams — compounds, One example of this would be the bonding of magnesium and oxygen.
Magnesium has an atomic number of 12 12 protons in the nucleus which is arranged in a 2,8,2 form, thus showing that magnesium has to lose 2 electrons in order to have a full outer shell Harvey, In contrast, oxygen has the atomic number 8, which is arranged as 2,6.
Therefore, oxygen needs to obtain 2 more electrons to complete the outer shell. So, as magnesium transfers 2 electrons, which oxygen gains, this gives magnesium a positive charge and oxygen a negative charge. In difference to ionic bonding, covalent bonding only occurs with non-metal atoms, where they need to share electrons in order to obtain a complete outer shell.
The process of covalent bonding occurs in the nuclei.
There are two types of Covalent bond, the first is called the nonpolar covalent bond and the second is the polar covalent bond. When the electrons are shared equally and the bonded atoms are the same and have the same electronegativity are called non-polar covalent bonds.
Polar covalent bonds differ as the atoms are different with a different electronegativity, and the electrons are pulled towards the more electronegative atoms.
In addition, the molecules in polar covalent are lop-side which creates dipoles Ritchie,pp. Covalent bond only occurs within non-metal atoms. Non-metal atoms also try to attain a full outer shell structure by which they need to share electrons that belongs to both atoms in the bond.
The shared electrons are attached at the nuclei, which then forms the covalent bonds. Atoms bonded this way are known as molecules. There are two types of Covalent bond, which are nonpolar covalent bond and polar covalent bond.
Non-polar covalent bond is when the electron is shared equally and the bonded atoms are the same and have the same electronegativity. Polar covalent bond is when the bonded atoms are different and has a different electronegativity.
The electrons in a polar covalent bond are pulled towards the more electronegative atoms, In polar covalent bond, molecules are lop-sided creating dipoles Gilbert et al. Dot-and-cross diagrams — compounds, The hydrogen atoms only has 1 electron on its outermost shell it needs to gain 1 more electron in order to get a complete outer shell which is the same for the other hydrogen molecule.
However the oxygen has 6 electrons in total, but the 2 electrons occupy the first shell and the other 4 electrons make up the outer shell Gilbert et al.
The outer shell in oxygen atom needs to gain more electrons to enable it to reach a stable state by achieving its nearest noble gas configuration 2.
The oxygen shares its electrons with the hydrogen molecules making it 2 electrons on its outer shell, on the other hand the two hydrogen atoms share its only electron in order for the oxygen to get to a stable state making its outer shell 6 electrons.
Hydrogen atoms can each form one covalent bond, while oxygen atoms can each form two covalent bonds. Two pairs of electrons are shared in a water molecule H2O Clarkson, There are three types of intermolecular interactions, which are Hydrogen bonding, vander Waals and Dipole-Dipole Clarkson, Hydrogen bonding is when Hydrogen is bonded to nitrogen, oxygen or fluorine.
Also nitrogen, oxygen and fluorine atoms have a lone pair of electrons which are attracted to the positive hydrogen atom. This force of attraction between an electron deficient hydrogen bonded to nitrogen, oxygen or fluorine and the lone pair of neighbouring nitrogen, oxygen or fluorine atom is called a hydrogen bond.
The hydrogen bond is mainly defined as a strong electrostatic dipole-dipole interaction. However, it also has some qualities of covalent bonding and is much stronger than a van der Waals interaction Gilbert et al. The contact of the electronegative oxygen with the hydrogen atoms from another molecule is very strong All about Intermolecular Forces, Van der Waals forces exist within all covalent molecules whether polar or non-polar.
This is the weakest intermolecular interaction.Essay: Ionic bonding In order for atoms to gain a full shell of electrons, chemical bonding needs to occur by either gaining or losing electrons.
Ionic, Covalent and Intermolecular bonds are the different types of atomic bonding (Hunt, A., ). Home > Examples > Examples: Grammar and Science Examples.
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|Solids, Liquids, and Gases||Within a year of Lucile's birth inHerman Pauling moved his family to Oswego, where he opened his own drugstore. Jeffresswho had a small chemistry lab kit.|
Properties of Ionic Compounds Lab Purpose: The purpose of this lab is to distinguish the differences between ionic compounds and covalent feelthefish.comesis: If the substance is a poor electrical conductor, then it is a covalent feelthefish.com the substance is a good electrical conductor, then it is an ionic feelthefish.com-lab: feelthefish.com crystal lattice energy.
Grade 9 is our Foundation Year. During this year students focus on building and refining the core academic skills of receiving, recording, analyzing, and interpreting information. As each student learns differently, we work with them to develop sound academic practices in everything from simple note.