The MIT Press,p.
Lesaca Commanding Heights Part 1: The Battle of Ideas: What does globalization, an inevitability that all countries have to learn to face, have for us in the future? During the world wars, there were 2 major but opposing economic theories that explains the reasons behind such conflicts and how it can be avoided.
Frederick Von Hayek, an adherent to the free market concept and John Maynard Keynes, an advocate for government intervention in the market. The film detailed how these 2 theories came to be and how other countries and governments viewed it versus alternative economic systems such as communism and socialism.
The more popular and widely accepted then was the Keynesian model which advocated for government intervention through regulatory and other forms of control over the economic market.
Core to the application of these theories are the concept of the basic market forces of supply and demand.
Hayek was for a free market where there is no government intervention. By letting the natural demand and supply freely determine the optimal amounts needed for production and consumption, a capitalistic economy can grow and flourish. However, after the 2 World Wars, that trend started to wane and instead governments needed some other solution.
This need for an answer was readily supplied by Keynes through government spending and other forms of intervention. As people began losing their fortunes, inflation continued to rise together with unemployment and a state of Stagflation 1 occurred.
Still governments continued to intervene, spending money and regulating almost everything they can put their hands on. While this non- intervention was painfully felt by everybody, after 3 years the results were positive in that inflation was put under control and employment started to rise.
Relevance to the Philippine Context Control of the commanding heights of the economy depends on which economic concept one follows and adheres to. History has shown that a capitalistic economic system is still the best way for an economy to flourish and grow.
The promotion of a free market system is required to enable a productive and creative work ethic among the people. People will naturally believe and trust in it since there is real freedom of choice. Trade is done equitably and fairly with no restrictions, except those dictated by the free market forces and not the whim of a government who, more often than not, will be reflective of the political agenda of its leaders rather than for the Nation.
In an attempt to curb inflation and unemployment, our current government is partnering with the private sector.
For one to grow, others must necessarily grow with them for a harmonious and peaceful relationship.
Otherwise, the part of the population that is left out will find some other way to beat the existing status quo. In the Philippine context, we see a semblance of the Keynesian prescription of government spending and regulatory intervention in putting the twin evils of inflation and unemployment.
Unfortunately, there still also exists an entitlement mindset which is a relic of the Spanish era self-serving Illustrado mentality that is still present among our leadership. Such government spending is often inefficient with a good part of the funding ending up in private accounts. As we face Globalization, we have to realize that our archipelagic country has a highly concentrated and centralized administrative system.
And as you move further away from the city, one can attest to a different socio-political environment with many local 1 A situation where there is galloping inflation accompanied by high unemployment rates governments under pressure to deliver public goods and services using a tight-budget that is largely still determined by the central government via an executive agency.
Enforcement is localized and subjective, whatever the local leadership decides on. Still, I maintain my positive opinion that our government is doing what it should. The problem, however, lies in what it should not do, such as perpetuating family networks, personally gaining either directly or indirectly from government transactions, and any actions that will result in an inequitable distribution of wealth.
We are still a young republic and just nearing the end of the 16th congress but we are surely but slowly maturing and learning not necessarily in that order and on the correct path with regard to how we embrace whatever economic ideology are in play.
Economic activity is evident everywhere as we witness the entrepreneurial spirit of the common Filipino. In fact, even the constitution of the Philippines has expressed as State policy the development of a self-reliant and independent national economy controlled by Filipinos Article II, Sec 19 and 20 of the Philippine Constitution.
But when the leadership becomes self-serving and ambitious, trouble ensues. The 3 branches of government are all vying for power over our commanding heights. We have a very powerful but highly political Executive, A legislature that produces laws, often with little regard to any social impacts nor practicality or enforcement and a Judiciary that has recently been stripped of its independence as demonstrated by the politically motivated ouster of its Chief Justice.It was one of the rules which, above all others, made Doctor Franklin the most amiable of men in society, "never to contradict anybody." If he was urged to announce an opinion, he did it rather by asking questions, as if for information, or by suggesting doubts.
GENERAL GEORGE PATTON’S MURDER on 21 December is one of the most concealed events in military history. Although Patton’s military file at the National Archives in St Louis has over pages of documents, only a handful of pages are devoted to the car crash.
Strangely, the 5 on-the-scene. Commanding Heights (Part 1: The Battle of Ideas): A Reaction Paper (PA – Administration of Economic Development) Submitted by: Bertrand Alexander J.
Lesaca Instructor: R.E. Miral Jr. Synopsis The film, Commanding Heights, is a well-made documentary that explains the history of the world’s economy that lead up to globalization and the trends that we may well expect (and un-expect) into the .
Commanding Heights The movie “Commanding Heights” explores the battle for the control of the world - Commanding Heights introduction. Based on the book by Daniel Yergin and Joseph Stanislaw, “Commanding Heights” describes the clash of thoughts that came up after the World War I.
Bob Truda, Indwe.
September Western Gauteng's Cradle of Humankind, or 'place where we once lived' in Setswana, is a complex network of dolomitic limestone caves where at least 40 different fossil sites have been discovered.
There is, of course, a legitimate argument for some limitation upon immigration. We no longer need settlers for virgin lands, and our economy is expanding more slowly than in the nineteenth and early twentieth century.