This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Glioblastoma GB is the most common malignant brain tumor. Drug resistance frequently develops in these tumors during chemotherapy. Therefore, predicting drug response in these patients remains a major challenge in the clinic.
Tin compounds are found in various environmental media in both inorganic and organic forms. Tin may be released to the environment from natural and anthropogenic sources. Tin is a component of many soils, and inorganic tin compounds may be released in dusts from wind storms, roads, and agricultural activities.
Other less significant natural sources include forest fires and volcanic emissions. Releases of tin to environmental media may occur from the production, use, disposal, and recovery of tin and tin compounds. Tin may be released to soil from landfilling of tin-containing wastes, including used cans IPCS, The application of pretreated municipal sludge and urban refuse as soil amendments may also introduce tin to soils.
Other point sources that might introduce tin to the soil include application of manure, corrosion of metal objects, and dispersion of metallic ores during transport Senesi et al. No more recent data were identified. Blunden, personal communication, In Europe and North America e.
Tin mining depends on the character of the deposit. The processing of tin ore following recovery involves smelting. After refining, the tin is cast into bars Robertson, Smelted ore may be further refined by heat treatment or electrolytic processes Gaver, An important property of tin is its ability to form alloys with other metals.
Tin alloys cover a wide range of compositions and many applications. Tin alloys are important in the production of coatings by electroplating and hot tinning the most important of these are tin—zinc, tin—nickel, tin—cobalt, and tin—copper Gaver, ; ATSDR, Dental amalgam alloys have been used for centuries.
Principally, three-compound ternary alloys of silver, tin, and copper with smaller amounts of other elements have been widely used in dentistry.
Tin coatings can be applied to most metal surfaces by electrodeposition, while in hot-dipping, molten tin wets and adheres readily to clean iron, steel, copper, and copper-base alloys.
Tin II chloride is obtained by dissolving metallic tin in hydrochloric acid or by reducing a solution of tin IV chloride with metallic tin. The anhydrous salt is produced by the direct reaction of chlorine and molten tin or by heating tin with hydrogen chloride gas.
It is an important industrial reducing agent, used in the preparation of glass and plastic for metallizing, metallized glazing, and electronic components on a plastic base, as a soldering flux, as a mordant in dyeing, and in the manufacture of tin chemicals, colour pigments, and sensitized paper Graf, ; Gaver, ; ILO, a; K.
It is important in nuclear medicine as an essential component in diagnostic agents used to visualize blood, heart, lung, kidney, and bone Francis et al. Tin II oxide is prepared from the precipitation of tin II chloride with alkali. It is used as a reducing agent, in the preparation of stannous salts, and in the preparation of gold—tin and copper—tin ruby glass Graf, ; Gaver, Tin IV oxide is produced by the combustion of powdered tin or sprayed molten tin in a hot stream of air.
It is used in the polishing of glass and enamels, in the manufacture of milk-coloured ruby and alabaster glass and enamels, as a mordant in printing and dyeing of fabrics, and in fingernail polish Graf, Tin II fluoride is produced commercially by the reaction of tin II oxide and aqueous hydrofluoric acid or by dissolving tin in anhydrous or aqueous hydrofluoric acid and is used primarily as an ingredient of caries-preventing toothpaste Gaver, Topical application of tin II fluoride appears to provide dentine with a layer of tin and fluoride, which might provide mechanical and chemical protection and be of clinical significance in restorative dentistry.
Tin II pyrophosphate is prepared from pyrophosphoric acid and tin II chloride and is used as an ingredient in caries-preventing toothpaste Budavari, However, the wind may carry airborne particles for long distances before deposition, depending on the type of emitting source, physical form and properties e.
Tin II dominates in reduced oxygen-poor water and will readily precipitate as tin II sulfide or as tin II hydroxide in alkaline water. Tin IV readily hydrolyses and can precipitate as tin IV hydroxide.
In general, tin IV would be expected to be the only stable ionic species in the weathering cycle Wedepohl et al. On release to estuaries, inorganic tin is principally converted to the insoluble hydroxide and is rapidly scavenged by particles, which are the largest sink for the metal.
Tin is generally regarded as being relatively immobile in the environment IPCS, ; Gerritse et al.
However, tin may be transported in water if it partitions to suspended sediments Cooney,but the significance of this mechanism has not been studied in detail.And research papers When you look in the mirror. what kinds of side effects they the abuse of steroids to achieve the perfect body cause.
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2b or not 2b an essay In the article “2b or not 2b” David Crystal starts out discussing how others such as John Sutherland said that texting is destroying the English language.
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