The Future of the Global Muslim Population Related Factors The following factors are not direct inputs into the projections, but they underlie vital assumptions about the way Muslim fertility rates are changing and Muslim populations are shifting. Education As in the rest of the world, fertility rates in countries with Muslim-majority populations are directly related to educational attainment.
Health challenges particularly evident in cities relate to water, environment, violence and injury, noncommunicable diseases cardiovascular diseases, cancers, diabetes and chronic respiratory diseasesunhealthy diets and physical inactivity, harmful use of alcohol as well as the risks associated with disease outbreaks.
City living and its increased pressures of mass marketing, availability of unhealthy food choices and accessibility to automation and transport all have an effect on lifestyle that directly affect health.
Its goal is to draw worldwide attention to the theme of urbanization and health and to involve governments, international organizations, business and civil society in a shared effort to put health at the heart of urban policy.
Many cities have planned activities such as closing off portions of streets to motorized traffic, town hall meetings with mayors, clean up-campaigns and events that promote social solidarity. The aim is to encourage discussion and debate between city leaders and their citizens to take action to improve policies, attitudes and behaviour in the face of some of the more negative aspects associated with urbanization that impact health.
WHO has used social media such as Facebook and YouTube so that individuals all over the world can participate and interact. It has been collecting stories of urban health champions such as Japanese school student Yuhta Oishi who successfully campaigned to ban smoking in the streets of his city of Shizuoka.
Other events planned for include: More than children and their parents are expected to join in fun exercise programmes with the help of a team of physical education teachers.
In Somalia, more than 1 million people will receive health-related text messages for World Health Day. Messages have been selected and translated into Somali language and the largest mobile phone network in Somalia has agreed to send these messages free of charge.
In Jalalabad, Afghanistan, there is a plan to plant up to trees. In San Luis, Argentina, the Plaza Independencia and four surrounding streets will be open to residents. Melbourne, Australia, plans a half- day family event including a run and bike on the Grand Prix circuit where participants are encouraged to carry a sign of their city of birth to demonstrate the multicultural nature of the city.
In Damphu, Bhutan, the day will be marked by raising awareness on health issues. In Medellin, Colombia, there are activities planned for the whole population, including festivals, celebration of physical activity week and activi- ties involving old and young people.
In Port Said, Egypt, the plan includes walking for health, drawing for health, music for health, playing for health. Bangalore, India, plans to offer free tests for eyesight, blood pressure and weight as well as planting saplings. Promote urban planning for healthy behaviours and safety. Improve urban living conditions, including access to adequate shelter and sanitation for all.
Involve communities in local decision- making. Ensure cities are accessible and age- friendly. Make urban areas resilient to emergencies and disasters. Bysix out of every 10 people will be city dwellers, rising to seven out of every 10 people by Between andthe urban population of developing countries grew by an average of 1.
One in three urban dwellers lives in slums, or a total of 1 billion people worldwide. Globally, road traffic injuries are the ninth leading cause of death, and most road traffic deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries.
Almost half of those who die in road traffic crashes are pedestrians, cyclists or users of motorized two-wheelers. Urban air pollution kills around 1. A major proportion of urban air pollution is caused by motor vehicles, although industrial pollution, electricity generation and in least developed countries household fuel combustion are also major contributors.
Tuberculosis TB incidence is much higher in big cities. Urban environments tend to discourage physical activity and promote unhealthy food consumption.Dec 30, · Melvyn Bragg and his guests discuss the far-reaching consequences of the Industrial Revolution, which brought widespread social and intellectual change to Britain.
Source: UN, World Urbanization Prospects: The Revision ().
The best data on global urbanization trends come from the United Nations Population Division and the World Bank. 3 The UN, however, cautions users that the data are often imprecise because the definition of urban varies country by country.
Past projections of urbanization have. UNESCO – EOLSS SAMPLE CHAPTERS DEMOGRAPHY – Vol. II - Urbanization and its Consequences - Xizhe Peng, Xiangming Chen, and Yuan Cheng ©Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) URBANIZATION AND ITS CONSEQUENCES Xizhe Peng Institute of Population Research, School of Social Development and Public Policy.
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Learn about McKinsey Global Institute's research on Urbanization. The world has experienced unprecedented urban growth in recent decades. In , for the first time, the world’s population was evenly split between urban and rural areas. There were more than cities over 1 million and 19 over 10 million.